- 2017 year - the Year of Dialogue with the People and Human Interests
- The Strategy of Actions on Further Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan
- Chairmanship of Uzbekistan in the Council of Foreign Ministers of the OIC
- Central Asia - the priority of foreign policy of Uzbekistan
- Problems of water resources in the Central Asia
- Events at Uzbekistan's overseas missions
- Uzbekistan and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
- 43 rd Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the OIC in Tashkent
- For delegations and media representatives
Uzbekistan and Islamic civilization
REVIVAL OF ISLAM IN THE YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE IN UZBEKISTAN
- Uzbekistan - tolerant country
In terms of independent development in Uzbekistan consis¬tently and systematic democratic transformations that intensify the process of formation of new national-state identity in the mentality of citizens are occurring. Moreover, tolerance as one of the fundamental democratic principles, suggesting tolerance to lifestyle, behavior, feelings, opinions, ideas and beliefs of the people of various ethnic groups are confirmed not only at national but also at the interpersonal, intergroup levels.
According to declaration of independence and the commit¬ment of the Government of Uzbekistan at the first days of inde¬pendence ideals of democracy, the election of secular develop¬ment of society gradually allowed to create equal legal conditions for the existence of religion in general and religious minorities in particular.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Uz¬bekistan freedom of conviction shall be guaranteed to all. This trend is also prescribed by the Law «On Freedom of Conviction and Religious Organizations» adopted in new edition in May 1998. In this law merits as belief-conviction, conscience-honesty and love of our people are expressed. And this law serves for provid¬ing citizen’s religious freedom and protecting human and civil rights and interests.
Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On Freedom of Con¬science and Religious Organizations» was adopted on May 1, 1998 and showed its ability in matters of freedom of religion and conscience.
Nowadays, in Uzbekistan 2,238 religious organizations of 16 different religious denominations are functioing. Out of them Muslim organizations consist of 2064, 94 percent of the total.
In Uzbekistan 157 Christian organizations, 8 Jewish commu¬nities, 6 Baha'i communities, society of Krishna and one Bud¬dhist temple, as well as interfaith Bible Society of Uzbekistan are also operating. For citizens of all religions, all the conditions are created for the free exercise of their religion, that is, believers are free to pray in mosques, churches, synagogues, fasting and pilgrimage.
Today, national policies are aimed at reforms in the sphere of religious dialogue, conditions believers increasingly gaining its popularity and interest among our international partners. In Uzbekistan the representatives more than 130 nations and nationali-ties, and also their accessory to 16 various religious confessions lift sphere of religion on more and more high steps of attention on the part of the state and government.
According to national legislation of Uzbekistan, restrictions on the number of religious organizations or their terms are not provided. Religious education system in Uzbekistan includes the Tashkent Islamic Institut, 9 madrasas, Orthodox and Protestant seminary.
In September, 1999 the President of the Republic of Uz¬bekistan established Tashkent Islamic University. In Uzbekistan believers freely celebrate all religious holidays. Moreover, every year more and more large scale muslims celebrate Eid- Kuban and Eid-Ramadan, christians celebrate Easter and Christmas, the jews - Purim and Hanukkah.
Every year in for believers Uzbekistan it’s made a pilgrimage to the holy places - Muslims in Saudi Arabia for the worship of Hajj and Umrah, Christians - in Russia, Greece and Israel, Jews - in Israel. All the years of independence, over 110 thousand citizens of the republic were given the opportunity to carry out Hajj pil¬grimage, over 90 thousand Umra pil¬grimage in Saudi Arabia, and more than 1 500 citizens pilgrimage to Russia, Greece and Israel, a holy place for christians and jews.
According to the Decree by President of August 28, 2006 the Public Council on the organization and activities of the annual «hajj» and «umrah» was founded. The main objectives and pri¬orities of the Public Council defined the organization of effective coordination and collaboration of ministries and departments, lo¬cal authorities, non-governmental organizations in the preparation and conduct of the pilgrimage citizens engaged in rituals «hajj» and «umrah» providing control over compliance with the safety requirements and the provisions of the legislation in this area.
Every year for our pilgrims comprehensive caring - orga¬nization of special flights, medical services, free exchange of foreign currency, reduced airfare prices, quick and smooth visa documents are provide.
In the late 2004, Muslim Board of Uzbekistan jointly with the National Society for the Blind was a presentation of the Holy Qur'an printed in Braille. Uzbekistan became the third nation in the world, to affect such a good cause.
Henceforth, special boarding schools, public libraries in the country, and everyone will be provided with copies of the Koran in Braille. At the event, it was noted that the publication of the Holy Quran for the Blind, the organization Surdo translation for the deaf in the two Friday mosques in the city of Tashkent, the decision to implement this experience in other regions of the country will be a priceless gift for our fellow citizens with disabilities.
All the years of independence Koran was translated into the Uzbek language and published (three times), 16 books of the Old Testament and the hole New Testament.
Hundreds of mosques, churches and houses of worship, in¬cluding Orthodox churches in Tashkent, Samarkand and Navoi, Catholic Church in Tashkent, Armenian Church in Samarkand were restored. According to the Cabinet of Ministers of the Re¬public of Uzbekistan on August 22, 2003 dated 15 objects - reli¬gious complexes, places of pilgrimage and the tomb - transferred to the Directorate of Muslims of Uzbekistan.
In 1995, Christian - Muslim Conference «Living Together in Heaven in Tashkent» was held. Representatives of the World Council of Churches, a number of foreign churches participated in this forum.
In 1996 marked two important dates:
In November 20, the 125th anniversary of Tashkent and Central Asian Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. In celebra¬tion of this date for the first time in the history of the church came to Central Asia, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II;
In December Evangelical Lutheran congregation cele¬brated the 100-th anniversary of the only Central Asian Lutheran Church.
In 2000, in Tashkent, an international conference on the theme: «World Religions in the Way of a Culture of Peace».
In 2002 the Roman Catholic Church celebrated the 100-th an¬niversary of the revival of Catholicism in Central Asia.
In October 2003 events was held to celebrate the 100-th an¬niversary of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Samarkand.
In December 2011, the Uzbekistan Tashkent and diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church celebrated its 140-th anniversary.
It is gratifying to note that the ongoing activities involving representatives of various faiths.
During the years of independence several international sym¬posiums on the occasion of important dates, anniversaries known worldwide Muslim theologians were held:
In September 1993, the 675-th anniversary of Bahauddin Naqshband;
In November 1995, 920 years of Mahmoud al-Zamakhshari and 850-th anniversary of Najmiddin Kubro;
In October 1998 the 1225-th anniversary of Imam Bukhari;
In November 2000 the 1130-th anniversary of Imam Moturidi and 910 years of Burkhaniddin Marginani;
In November 2003 the 900-th anniversary of Abdukhalik Gijduvani;
In December 2004 the 600-th anniversary of Khoja Ahrar Vali.
Announcement by ISESCO «Tashkent is the capital of Islam¬ic culture» in 2007 was yet another international recognition of consistent and systematic work carried out in the country under the leadership of President Islam Karimov, to ensure freedom of conscience, rehabilitation and development of Islamic values, the study of the rich scientific and cultural heritage of their ancestors, reconstruction and improvement of burial places of great thinkers and saints.
The forum was held on the occasion attended by more than 100 well-know professors, religious scholars and specialists, large government, religious and community leaders in more than 30 countries , including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, China, Japan, USA, UK, France, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Bangladesh, leaders of international orga¬nizations . Among them were the leading representatives of the Muslim world - the leaders of major international organizations such as the OIC, the League of Arab States, ISESCO.
At the forum noted that during the years of independence Uzbekistan has achieved great successes in the conservation of national traditions and customs, to perpetuate the memory of great ancestors, improvement sacred places of burial.
Among them is the creative work on the improvement of such places of worship are as the Imam Bukhari and Imam Moturidi in Samarkand, Abdukholik Gijduvani and Bahauddin Naqshband, complexes «Minorai Kalon» and «Masjidi Kalon» in Bukhara, monuments Ahmad al-Fargoni and Burkhaniddin Marginoni in Fergana, Hakim Termezi and Imam Termezi in Surkhandarya, historical complexes «Ichankala» in Khiva, «Odina» and «Dor ut-Tilovat» in Shakhrisabz and «Kuk gumbaz» in Karshi mausoleum.
In accordance with the Decree of the President on February 20, 2007 «On the support of public fund Hazrat Imam (Hastimom)» Hazrat Imam complex in Tashkent carried a lot of work for the construction, reconstruction and improvement. Today, you can see Hazrat Imam madrassas Baraakhona place of worship «Muyi muborak» mosque «Tillashaykh», building Management of Mus-lims of Uzbekistan and other unique facilities which are another striking confirmation of the great creative potential of our people.
Thousands of magnificent mosques which have got all up to date comforts have been built. For instance, in 2014 being unique in the region with its special peculiarities the «Minor» mosque was established.
In 2007 On the adoption of conservation measures in the proper form «Osman’s Koran», was accepted by the Cabinet of Ministers.
According to the decision were taken several measures, in¬cluding, built a new place to keep «Osman's Koran» were invited foreign specialists for conservation works, etc.
In May 31, 2007 members of the Muslim, Orthodox and Jewish communities took part in the seminar «The experience of Uzbekistan in achieving interfaith harmony» organized at the initiative of the International Public Fund «Forum of the three re¬ligions» in London.
In May 23, 2008 in Samarkand region «the Centre for the study of hadith» was created by the International Centre of Imam Bukhari. One of the main activities of the center - the organiza¬tion of training courses for leaders of mosques.
From 2015 to the present time have been only 32 stages of such courses, which were attended by 2060 Imam-Khatibs.
In November 6-7, 2010 in Tashkent an international scien¬tific seminar «Hajj pilgrimage from Central Asia» hosted. The workshop reflected the rich history of the pilgrimage of Central Asia and the Caucasus, and fundamental changes in this area since independence to ensure the rights of citizens to freedom of conscience and religion, improved support believers Hajj.
For a full consecration of religious life in Uzbekistan a num¬ber of newspapers and magazines are printed, including newspa¬per «Islom nuri», «Slovo jizni» magazine «Hidoyat», «Vostok svishe», etc.
Currently, almost all the population of Uzbekistan believing fully embraced the necessary number of religious organizations and given him the opportunity to fully their religious needs.
ISLAMIC SHRINES OF UZBEKISTAN
- Islamic architectural complexes and ensembles of Uzbekistan
THE MEMORIAL ENSEMBLE SHAHI-ZINDA
The memorial ensemble Shahi-Zinda is the most esteemed place of pilgrimage in Central Asia. The meaning of the word is "the living king". This place is connected with the activity of the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad Kusam ibn Abbas who, by local legend, spread Islam during late 7th century together with the first Arabian conquerors to Central Asia. By the legend he was attacked but he hid in the well, whence ascended to heaven alive.
Since then this place is considered sacred and each of governors considered as a duty to construct a public building or to bury their relatives. Experts consider this place “as the encyclopedia of architecture and architectural decor of the Muslim East” as there are architectural masterpieces from the 20th century to the early 20th century. The ensemble arose in line of the inhabited city destroyed by armies of Genghiskhan, and it is seen that all monuments are positioned along the ancient street. The ensemble consists of the Bottorm. Middle and Upper hallway. Upper hallway (Northern court yard) starts from the funeral-memorial complex of Kusam ibn Abbas.
THE IMAM AL-BUKHARI MEMORIAL COMPLEX
One of the most prominent specialists in hadith in the entire Muslim world, Imam al-Bukhari was born in Bukhara on July 21, 810, and died in the village of Hartang ( present- day Payariq district of Samarkand regio), 25 km from Samarkand, where he was buried in 870. Since that time this place has become one of the most revered places of Muslims around the world.
The time to restore historical justice with respect to the glorious heritage of Imam al-Bukhari came when Uzbekistan gained its independence and fairness. On 29 April 1997, the Resolution of the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted “ On celebrating the 1,225th anniversary of the birth of Imam al-Bukhari by Hijra” – the lunar calendar. In November that year the UNESCO General Conference adopts a resolution to participate in 1998 in the celebration of the 1,225th anniversary of the scholar Ismail al – Bukhari. The majestic memorial at the tomb of Imam al-Bukhari was also built, made in the tradition of ancient architecture in Central Asia.
Architectural ensemble formed around the grave of Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Khasan ibn Bashir al-Hakim al-Termizi (d.869). It is located 7 km north-west of the city of Termez, on the right bank of the Amu-Darya River on the border between Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. The complex of the main mausoleum at-Termizi includes several monuments erected at different times.
Mausoleum of Hakim at-Termizi, built on the foundation of the monastery (khanaka) of the famous sheikh, along with sided memorial mosque on the west, and decorated with brilliantly executed epigraphy. For example, an epigraphic frieze separates the dome from the wall. After the repair and restoration work of the main mausoleum made in the third quarter of the 12th century, there was done one more line of inscriptions in naskh script. The next is of historical nature, and there is the name of the donator of repairs and ruler of Termez – Ahmad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Kumach (Abu-l-Muzaffar Ahmad Togan-tegin).
SULTAN SADAT ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX
The monument is located 3 km north-east of Termez. The complex is considered to be ancestral tomb of Termez sayyids, that is, offsprings of the House of the Prophet (ahl-ul-bayt), who come from the imam Husayn who was born from the marriage of Caliph’ Ali and Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. This kind of cult complex was being formed over several centuries.
Start of construction specialists referred to 10th -11th centuries. Group of monuments formed an elongated courtyard. In the complex there is included a mosque of avian type, which has a portal structure with an arched passageway near-gate structure (darvaza-khana), 16 mausoleums built in the 14th, some in the 16th and 17th centuries, abode (khanaka) and other premises. The history of the construction of architectural monuments of the complex is inextricably linked with the history of Termez sayids, who played significant role in the history of Maverannahr and Khorasan. In the premises of the tomb, there are well-plastered low headstones marking the graves of sayyids. There are no inscriptions on the tombstones. Inscriptions flanking portal of the mosque, are linked with glazed mosaic facing, and at the end of the 19th century were transcribed off and read by A. A.Semenov. At the same time, there were recorded fragments of the main text on the right of the arch and above the left side of the portal.
KHOJA ABDALKHALIK AL-GIJDUVANI COMPLEX
The complex is located in Gijduvon (approx. 50 km north –east of Bukhara). It is formed around the tomb of the famous Sufi sheikh, the founder of the independent school of mysticism in the region of Central Asia Abdalkhalik ibn Abdaldjalil al-Gijduvani (died in 1180 or 1220). His father was considered an authoritative faqih, bore the title of honorary sobriquet Abduljalil and erected its origins to Imam Malik ben Anans (713-795).
Abdalkhalik himself according to the written tradition, studied from the famous mystic Abu Ya’qub Yusuf al-Hamadani (1048-1140) and then founded his own school. This mystical school was later called “Khodjagan” and was fully accepted by Bahauddin Muhammad, better known by his nickname Nakshband (1318-1389).
Al-Gijduvoni formulated about 60 regulations, which the true Muslim busy with mystical-ascetic practice should follow: mandatory performance of shari’at requirements, the eradiction of reprehensible “innovations” in Sufism (tasawwuf), voluntary, but self-sufficient poverty, asceticism, and the rejection of worldly pleasures, mandatory study of fiqh, etc. He considered reprehensible any contact with powerful people, particularly with the military people and state rulers, any interference in politics.
THE ZANGHI-ATA ENSEMBLE
The ensemble was formed around the tomb of the sufi shaykh Yasaviya Zanghi Ata (14lh century). The oldest part of it consists of the burial chamber of the shaikh and a hall for the pilgrims. In addition, there is the mosque, khujdras (rooms) for pilgrims, a minaret, a pond (khauz) and near-gate construction built in the yard. Tomb and then the ensemble was a place of pilgrimage for Muslims all over the region.
Presumably tombstone over the grave of shaikh was established in the era of Amir Temur (most likely by his command), and the domed building and a hall for the pilgrims were built during the reign of Mirza Ulugh-beg. Then, for several centuries the yard was established. The biggest restoration works were carried out at the beginning of the 19th century and in the late 1990s.
KUSAM – ATA ENSEMBLE
It is located 15 km to north – west of Karshi, in the village Pudina and is considered as one of the centers of Sufi Yasaviya brotherhood in the Karshi oasis. According to the legend Kusam – ata was one of the spiritual teachers of Bahouddin Naqshband. The ensemble consists of several buildings – the mosque, mausoleum, rooms for pilgrims (ziarat - khana), three gates and the tomb. The buildings of the necropolis were built at different time – from 9th to 19th centuries.
The central place in the mausoleum of Kusam –ata, which was rebuilt several times. Epigraphic monuments of the complex are funeral inscriptions and fragments of architectural inscriptions. Carved tombs are out of gray marble, dating back to 15th -16th centuries and placed in the mausoleum of the medulla to the right at the entrance to the northern courtyard. On the wall of ziyrat – khana, next to the mausoleum of Iskhaq ata fragments of gravestones of brown color with the inscription on it are installed. The fragment presumably dates from the 14th century. It applied the formula of Monotheism (Kalima-i tawheed).
BAHOUDDIN NAQSHBAND MEMORIAL COMPLEX
The architectural ensemble of Bahouddin, located kilometers north-east of Bukhara, in the old village Qasr-i Arifan arose from the mazar of this sufi. He had been forming for five hundred years, but it is known very little about its early history. The first buildings near the Bahauddin mazar appeared, probably soon after the death of the sufi. Their remains, covered by later buildings were found during the architectural and archeological investigations.
Soon to the west of Mazar the cemetery appeared where murids, followers and admirers of Naqshband were buried, later here its most prestigious part (Dakhma- yi Shahan) was seceded. In the first half of 16th century by the order of Shaybanid Abdullaziz-khan (1540-1550) hazira (enclosure for the burial) was built around the Bahauddin mazar, and in the north-west corner there is khanaka (abode) was built in 951/1545. The structuring on the complex was carried out within the next centuries.
DAR US-SADAT COMPLEX
The complex arose after the death of the eldest son of Amir Temur, Jahangir (1376), whose mausoleum has dome ceiling in the shape of a cone. The complex is located to the east of the complex Dar – ut – tilavat. In the past, both complexes formed a single complex and were part of the main Shakhrisabz necropolis. In the mausoleum there is the tombstone (sagan) Jahangir.
According to other versions the mausoleum was erected in honor of the saint Hazrat- i- Imam. The complex is also famous for the tomb of Amir Temur. It is assumed that the tomb of Umar-Shaykhis in this area. The gravestones plate of the grandson of Tamerlane- Sa’id Ahmad-which is discovered near here suggests that the necropolis was the burial place of Temurids and the aristocracy of the Barlas genus, from which Amir Temur originated.
Registan Square used to be the academic, administrative and religious center of the city. The word Registan means "a sandy place". Centers of all major cities used to be referred to as Registan in the Middle Ages. The areas and squares with such name were in Bukhara, Tashkent, Shahrisabz. One of the outstanding examples of the art of urban-planning in Central Asia was in Samarkand.
Here was reflected the complete multi millennia history of the city. At the time of Amir Temur, Registan turned into a city center of Samarkand. After which, during the time of Mirzo Ulugbek (1409-1449) it got its more prominent status. The Modern ensemble of Registan is made up of Ulugbek Madrassah (1417-1420), Sher-Dor Madrassali (1619-1636) and Tilla-Kori Mosque Madrassah (1647- 1660). There was a monastery of mystics (hanaka) and tombs in the south side of the Registan square known as Childukhtaron among people. They were constructed by the order of Kuchkunji-khan (1527— 1530) and thereby they were added (kosh) to Tilla-Kori Madrassah. The building was destroyed during the earthquake of 1904, and in 1910 it disassembled completely and its place tarred into a square. The current appearance of the Registan Square has been restored during the last 100 years.
THE SULTAN UVAIS FUNERAL AND MEMORIAL COMPLEX
The Funeral and memorial complex is locate in Beruni district of Karakalpakistan. According to local legends one of the companions of the Prophet Uvais Karani is buried here. Facilities of the complex were built at different times (16th – 20th centuries). From the epigraphic monuments only a small part was reserved.
In 2000-2005, in the complex extensive restoration work was carried out. The complex of Sultan Uvais is the most popular place of pilgrimage among the population of Karakalpakstan and Khorezm.
THE ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX JAMI
The architectural complex Jami (madrassah, minaret and khanaka). Built in 1885-1892 by khakan Muhammadaliboy (Mamtaliboy). Located in a district of Andijan, called Eski Shahar (Old Town). A rare architectural monument, preserved after the earthquake of Andijan in 1902. At the end of XIX - early XX century, mudarris (teachers of religious schools), imams and experts in Islamic law were prepared here. In the years of Soviet power it was used in a variety of business purposes. In 1974, it was renovated and placed under state protection. Currently, there is a museum of literature and art in Andijan region.
HAZRATI IMAM COMPLEX
The modern name derives from an honorary name of the buried scholar here, Imam al-Qaffal ash-Shashi – Khazrati (Khasti) Imam. This place was considered sacred among the townspeople, and before in was the site of a cemetery, and other buildings. In the recent past, the complex was “hidden” among many houses and buildings of the city and its buildings were not renovated.
In 2007, on behalf of and led by the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov on the basis of the resolution signed by him (20 February 2007), the complex was completely restored and appearance of additional facilities was subjected to appearance of monuments were partially restored and the lost ones replaced by new ones.
- Mosques of Uzbekistan
THE KALAN MOSQUE
The first Friday Mosque of Bukhara was founded in 713 by the Arab commander Qutaiba ibn Muslim in kuhandiz (Ark/fortress) of Bukhara on the site of a pagan temple in the first quarter of the 12th century. Karakhanidian ruler Arslan –khan, Muhammad ordered to transfer Friday mosque and minaret to the western part of shakhristan. This action ended in failure: the unfinished minaret crumbled and destroyed the mosque. The mosque was restored in 1121, and the minaret, which was completed eight years later, still serves as a vertical dominant in the historical part of Bukhara.
As archeological research shows now under the existing mosque there are the remains of two more mosques and the lower one is the construction of Arslan – Khan, and it had the same dimensions as the current existing building. Apparently, it was the largest mosque in Mavarannahr before the construction of Bibi-Khanum Mosque (Khanum/ Khonim) in Samarkand in 1399-1404. The second mosque (the first quarter – the middle of the 14th century) was erected on the site of the first, and was of the same type, but the whole brick one. The third now existing building is a mosque which was built supposedly during the reign of Mirzo Ulugbek. This grand construction (80x130m) is rectangular, elongated in the east-west axis.
THE KALAN MINARET
The Kalan Minaret is the most magnificent building in Bukhara. According to the author on the history of medieval Bukhara Muhammad Narshakhi (in the Kubawi’s interpretation), Kalan was built by the ruler of Bukhara Arslan-khan (early 12th century) at the new mosque of the city. The first attempt to build a minaret on the site was unsuccessful and the minaret fell on the mosque. Instead of the old collapsed one there was built a new one, which has been preserved to this day. It was built in 1127-1129; the height of the minaret is 45.6 m.
THE SHEIKH ZAINIDDIN MOSQUE
The complex is located in the historic district of Tashkent, Kukcha, and its history is directly linked with the history of the area. Information about that person in the historical sources were not found. According to local legends, the father of shaykh Zayniddin was supposedly one of the eponyms of Sufi brotherhood Suhravardiya famous Shihab al-din Suhravardi (1145 —1235).
However, according to archaeological and architectural studies, the building of the tomb was erected approximately in the 16th century.
AMIR TEMUR MOSQUE AND THE MAUSOLEUM OF BIBI-KHANYM
It is known under a name of the legendary wife of Amir Temur: Bibi-khanym (Saray-Mulk-khanym). There is a legend that she constructed this building as na expression of love to her husband. Actually it was built as the main mosque by order of Amir Temur after Ms Indian campaign. The construction of the building began in 1399 and was finished in five years. The powerful entrance portal strengthened with the towers- minarets (up to 50 meters high) on the comers. The portal of the main building acts as a mihrab.
In the centre of court yard there is a huge marble stand for the Koran (laukh). It was made at the time of Ulugbek, Amir Temur's grandson. In later time (XVI-XVIII centuries) this stand was used by some rulers of Uzbek dynasties as original "throne", where the khan was rested on white felt.
KOK GUMBAZ MOSQUE
Kok Gumbaz mosque is the main monument of Dar – ut – tilavat complex. It was erected by order of Ulugbek Kuragan in 839/1435. In the plan it’s square (12,52x12,61m), blocked by a dome, keeping on the sails. On the four sides there are the deep niches 4,48 – 4,63 m width. Epigraphic inscriptions are on the cylinder of the outer dome, laid out in mosaic, and also on the main façade and the interior of the building.
Different types of Arabic scripts along with traditional ornaments give the building splendor. The inscriptions on the portal are excerpts from the Koran (2:127 - 128). On the mosque cylinder there are Kufic inscriptions, made out of bricks. 1-2 verses of sura al-Fath (48) written in Kufic script with white letters on the yellow background. In the interior of the mosque there is a composition of the repeated sacred words. It’s written in yellow letters on the blue background with Kufic script banno: “Power belongs to Allah”. On the cylinder of the mosque there are inscriptions in Sulsi script with white letters on the blue background, of sura al-Jum’ah (62).
AK-MACHIT (WHITE MOSQUE)
It is difficult to quickly identify residential quarter mosques among the other buildings of Khiva. Because most of the mosques are built exactly like residential buildings, among them the Ak-Machit (A White Mosque) differs by the peculiarity of its layout. Frontal view of the mosque, a shady terassa surrounding it from three sides, three doors of the one-dome building suggests that the mosque is a gathering place for the community.
The inscriptions carved on the doors indicate that the building was erected in 1838 - 1842. It was exactly by this time that all the buildings around the square were generally finished by constructors and now master architects had to build the building on the remaining small part of the square. The architecture of this building had to express the grandeur of the square, not much differing from the adjacent residential buildings and Khivan masters completed this task at the high level.
The mosque consists of the square room (6,35 x 6,35) on which the central dome, is set up and also of a terrace. The room was broadened by means of arches. The structure of the terrace and the side walls clearly denote composition of the facade of the mosque. Dome of the mosque which is highly raised over a flat roof, with its square base from afar gives the building a stepped appearance.
The mosque in Andijan (Fitrat Street) and surrounding complex were built in 18884-1885. Some parts of the complex were built until 1902. The earthquake of that year damaged some parts of the mosque. Actually the complex was built on the site of a former suburban mosque (namozgoh) in Andijan at the expense of Mahmud-Ali bay’s. The chief architect was a master Ishakhan. In the construction a master Mavlana participated. From the east the terrace is adjacent to the mosque, to the east of it there is a minaret (32 m), two-storey school building (dars-khana).
Mosque “Minor” was opened on October 1, 2014 in anticipation of the holiday of Kurban Hayit. This is one of the biggest mosque in Uzbekistan that can accommodate over 2,400 worshipers. The project to build the mosque complex was designed on the basis of the ideas and proposals of the President. The area of the mosque is more than 11 hectares and the area of buildings - 17 700 square meters.
ABU MANSUR AL-MATURIDIY MAUSOLEUM
Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Hanafi al-Matiridy as-Samarkandi a scholar and philosopher, the founder of the “Maturidy’ branch in kalam (Muslim theology), and expert in fiqh (Muslim jurisprudence) was born in 870 in the small town near Samarkand named Madrid.
Many pupils went to him, and the Imam al-Maturidy taught them in his home’s garden. His influence in the scientific world of the Muslim East very high. The most famous of his followers was Abul Muin Nasafi(XI cent.) who continuedtaching “Moturidiya”.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Maturidy died in 944 and was buried in the cemetery Chakardiza in Samarkand, where the mausoleum was built and it was highly respected by people. According to legend, more than 3,000 theologians were buried there. The mauseloum was destroyed in 1930s.
In 2000, the 1,130th anniversary of the scientist’s birth date was widely celebrated in Uzbekistan. International forums were held where scientists from different countries presented their researches on the heritage of Al - Maturidy. At the same time, in 2000, at the initiative of President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, on the ruins of the mausoleum, an architectural complex was built in the center of which the mausoleum of the scientist stands.
The Mausoleum is formed around the grave of the famous theologian, scholar theologian (mutakallim), linguist, scholar of hadith, Muslim jurisprudence (fiqh) and the poet Muhammad ibn Ali, Abu Bakr al-Qaffal al-Shashi (904-976). He is particularly famous as a connoisseur and promoter of the Shafi’i law – and one of the Sunni schools of thought. He was educated in Bukhara, Baghdad, Nishapur, and other cities of the Islamic world. He learnt from famous theologians of his time, At-Tabari (died 923), Abu Bakr ibn Khuzaymah (died 933), etc.
Qaffal al-Shashi is one of the most respected saints of Tashkent. His burial place was almost the only relic of the city until the XIV century. According to the local legend, the Imam al-Shashi led his genus to "Lord of the Imam" (Hazrat-i Imam), beside who he was buried. According to other later manuscript versions, Imam ash-Shashi was linked with Muhammad ibn al-Hanafi, known as Iskhaq Bab (or Ishaq at-Turk).
THE MAUSOLEUM OF
The mausoleum is one of the most ancient monuments of Ichan-Kala. The mausoleum consists of ziyarathana (places of worship) and gurhana (tomb). Over the centuries, due to the increase in the number of burials and land strata the mausoleum remained below ground level.
Historian Ahmed Razi, including Sayid Alauddin into the list of the major known Khorezm sheikhs, claims that he was one of the biggest sheikhs after the sheikh Nadzhmeddin Kubra. These words can also be read in the works of Navoi and Jami. The manuscript of the Khivans Safarzadeh son of Babajan about the holy people of Khorezm writes the following: "This man was born in the XIII century, a native of Khorezm Uzbeks. As a youth, after finishing of the old school, studying at the madrassah he was a mullah, who taught children in the old school at the mosque. He was considered as a schoolteacher of Pahlavan Mahmud". In gurhana (burial place) the dakhma (tomb) remarkable beauty is placed, which is lined with elegant glazed majolica tiles of green, dark blue, blue and white colours.
Seyid Alauddin Mausoleum was built on the initiative of his disciple and mureed, known representative of the Muslim persuasion of Nakshbendi Amir Sufi Kulyal (who died in 1380 and was buried in the city of Shakhrisabz, at the command of Amir Timur in the family cemetery of the Timurid dynasty).
PAHLAVAN MAHMUD MAUSOLEUM
Pakhlavan Mahmud mausoleum was originally built mainly in the fourteenth century in the form of a small gurhana (space for burial), where the big "Pir" (spiritual guide) of his time - Pakhlavan Mahmud (1247-1326) was buried. Pakhlavan Mahmud was born in 1247 in the city of Khiva, in the family of craftsman furrier, sewing Khorezm coats. Even in his early youth he was engaged in a craft with his father - manufacturing coats, later he became literate, and attained a degree of great poet and philosopher.
In addition, he was a strong fighter (wrestler), and for his 79 years of life has never suffered a defeat in the competition of fighters. By participating in the competitions of fighters in neighbouring countries of Iran, Khorasan, India and other countries, he always won.
He was also called a freethinking scientist-philosopher, possessor of great talent and insight, with respect to the poetic observation he was called "Khorezm's Khayyam." It is certainly no accident. According to scientific researchers, Pakhlavan Mahmud was not only a worthy successor of Omar Khayyam in poetry and philosophy, but also in the literature of the people speaking Farsi and Turki there was no poet, after Omar Khayyam, who could compare with him in writing Rubaiyat (quatrains).
SAYYID AMIR KULAL
The Shrine is located in the village of Suhar (25 kilometers north of Bukhara). It notes the grave of the Sufi school spiritual authority, the famous scientist-mystic Hodjagan Amir Kulal (ca.1281-1370), the six successors in the chain of spiritual succession (silsila) of this school. He was a disciple of Muhammad baba Sammasi (died in 1354). Amir Kulal had more than one hundred students, the most famous of which was Bahauddin (Baha’ad-din) Naqshband.
According to one of the Lives (“Makamat-I Amir Kulal”), as well as apocryphal writing of ” Malfuzat-i/ Tuzukati-I Temuri”, Amir Kulal blessed Amir Temur and predicted him a great future. This notion about saint and especially fame for this pupil Bahauddin Naqshband largly contributed to the popularity of the burial place of Amir Kulal. Nevertheless, on this tomb there was not built any significant buildings.
Muslim shrine (mazar) is located on the northwestern suburbs of Bukhara. The complex of buildings built here in the 15th – 16th centuries includes ziyarat-khana (room for the ritual ziyara), chilla-khana (room for forty-day retreats), gur-khana with imaginary Ayyub tomb, a sacred well (chashma, bulak) with fresh water, probably spring by origin. According to the local legend, the water cures skin diseases. Around the complex until recently there has been a large cemetery.
According to the results of archeological and architectural studies and majolica dedicatory inscriptions, the bulk of the complex was built in 1383 by the efforts of the emir of Hajjaj, renovated and completed during the reign of Shaybanid Abdallah-khan II (1583-1598).
On the imaginary grave of Ayyub there is wooden board installed with a text containing the fragment of the Koran (Baqara, 256-257) and the legendary story of the arrival of Ayyub to Bukhara.
Mausoleum Gumbazi Sayyidan was built in 1437 by the order of the famous Mirzo Ulugbek (1394 - 1449), the grandson of Tamerlane. The tomb along with other buildings is a single and unique memorial and architectural complex of the Dar- ut – tilavat. It is adjacent to the mausoleum of Shams al – Din Kulala.(d.1368) from the south and on their appearance and the outer decoration recalls the architectural monuments of the Ulugbek built in the necropolis of Shah i Zinda in Samarkand.
Gumbazi Sayyidan crypt was built for family members of Termez branch of Sayyids (descendants of the Prophet). The interior of the mausoleum is decorated with floral ornaments. Inside the Gumbazi Sayyidan shrine there are gravestone socle plates of large size with inscriptions.